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FAMILY PLANNING

China's family planning policy combines government guidance with the wishes of the masses.  The basic requirements of family planning are late marriages and late child-bearing, so as to have fewer, but healthier, babies, especially one child per couple.  But a flexible family planning policy is adopted for rural people and ethnic minorities; in rural areas, couples may have second baby in exceptional cases, but must wait several years after the birth of the first child.

  In areas inhabited by minority peoples, each ethnic group may work out different regulations in accordance with its wish, population, natural resources, economy, culture and customs: In general, a couple may have a second baby or a third child in some places.  As for ethnic minorities with extremely small populations, a couple may have as many children as they want.

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Profound changes have taken place in the people's viewpoints on marriage, childbearing and the family.  Late marriage, late childbearing and fewer but healthier babies are the accepted norms of the most people in China.  Now the people have a common understanding that there is no difference between a son or a daughter.

  It has become a custom to set up a small happy, harmonious family, and pursue a scientific and civilized lifestyle.  Meanwhile, family planning has helped Chinese women get rid of the burden of frequent childbearing and the heavy family burden after marriage, thus raising women's status and improving the health of both mothers and children.

China's family planning policy combines government guidance with the wishes of the masses.  The basic requirements of family planning are late marriages and late child-bearing, so as to have fewer, but healthier, babies, especially one child per couple.  But a flexible family planning policy is adopted for rural people and ethnic minorities; in rural areas, couples may have second baby in exceptional cases, but must wait several years after the birth of the first child.

  In areas inhabited by minority peoples, each ethnic group may work out different regulations in accordance with its wish, population, natural resources, economy, culture and customs: In general, a couple may have a second baby or a third child in some places.  As for ethnic minorities with extremely small populations, a couple may have as many children as they want.

Back to Top

Profound changes have taken place in the people's viewpoints on marriage, childbearing and the family.  Late marriage, late childbearing and fewer but healthier babies are the accepted norms of the most people in China.  Now the people have a common understanding that there is no difference between a son or a daughter.

  It has become a custom to set up a small happy, harmonious family, and pursue a scientific and civilized lifestyle.  Meanwhile, family planning has helped Chinese women get rid of the burden of frequent childbearing and the heavy family burden after marriage, thus raising women's status and improving the health of both mothers and children.

 

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American Teenage Activist Appeals on Tiananmen Square

A 13-year-old U.S boy, Jonathan Lee, who is campaigning for a peace park, was released from Chinese detention along with his mother, after staging a brief protest near Tiananmen Square in Beijing.
He is asking the China to support:
1.The end of the Korean War with the signing of a peace treaty between the two Koreas and the U.S.
2.A nuclear free Korean peninsula.
3.The creation of a Children's Peace Forest in the DMZ. It's motto is Above Politics, Above Borders, Above Conflicts, Above Ideology. It's all about giving hope to people and children around the world. More......

 


THE FAMILY

China has 340 million families, with 3.63 people per household on average.  In general, a Chinese family is composed of a couple and their children, but big families with three or more generations can also be found in China.  Along with the pursuit of personal freedom, the trend of forming small families with only directly related members is now prevalent.

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In the past, each Chinese family had a "head," who had absolute authority at home, and had the final say in family affairs.  But now in most Chinese families, the husband and wife, or a couple with other family members, work out together the household plans, and decide family affairs through consultation.

  Moreover, family members share the housework, making the division of labor at home more reasonable; and the husband and wife support each other's work.

The Chinese people have the tradition of respecting the old and loving the young.  Though many young couples do not live with their parents, they maintain close contact with them.  Grown up children have the duty to support and help their parents.  The Chinese people attach great importance to relations between family members and relatives, and cherish their parents, children, brothers and sister, uncles, aunts and other relatives.

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China has 340 million families, with 3.63 people per household on average.  In general, a Chinese family is composed of a couple and their children, but big families with three or more generations can also be found in China.  Along with the pursuit of personal freedom, the trend of forming small families with only directly related members is now prevalent.

Back to Top

In the past, each Chinese family had a "head," who had absolute authority at home, and had the final say in family affairs.  But now in most Chinese families, the husband and wife, or a couple with other family members, work out together the household plans, and decide family affairs through consultation.

  Moreover, family members share the housework, making the division of labor at home more reasonable; and the husband and wife support each other's work.

The Chinese people have the tradition of respecting the old and loving the young.  Though many young couples do not live with their parents, they maintain close contact with them.  Grown up children have the duty to support and help their parents.  The Chinese people attach great importance to relations between family members and relatives, and cherish their parents, children, brothers and sister, uncles, aunts and other relatives.

Back to Top

China has 340 million families, with 3.63 people per household on average.  In general, a Chinese family is composed of a couple and their children, but big families with three or more generations can also be found in China.  Along with the pursuit of personal freedom, the trend of forming small families with only directly related members is now prevalent.

In the past, each Chinese family had a "head," who had absolute authority at home, and had the final say in family affairs.  But now in most Chinese families, the husband and wife, or a couple with other family members, work out together the household plans, and decide family affairs through consultation.

  Moreover, family members share the housework, making the division of labor at home more reasonable; and the husband and wife support each other's work.

The Chinese people have the tradition of respecting the old and loving the young.  Though many young couples do not live with their parents, they maintain close contact with them.  Grown up children have the duty to support and help their parents.  The Chinese people attach great importance to relations between family members and relatives, and cherish their parents, children, brothers and sister, uncles, aunts and other relatives.

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FIFTY-SIX ETHNIC GROUPS

China is a united multi-ethnic nation of 56 ethnic groups.  According to the fourth national census, taken in 1990, the Han people made up 91.96% of the country's total population, and the other 55 ethnic groups, 8.04%.  As the majority of the population is of the Han ethnic group, China's other ethnic groups are customarily referred to as the national minorities.

The Han people can be found throughout the country, though mainly on the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, the Yangtze River and the Pearl River valleys and the Northeast plain.  The national minorities, though fewer in number, are also scattered over a vast areas, and can be found in approximately 64.3 percent of China, mainly distributed in the border regions from northeast China to north, northwest, and southwest China.

  Yunnan Province, home to more than 20 ethnic groups, has the greatest diversity of minority people in China.  In most of China's cities and county town, two or more ethic groups live together.  Taking shape over China's long history, this circumstance of different ethic groups "living together in one area while still living in individual compact communities in special areas: continues to provide the practical basis for political, economic and cultural intercourse between the Han and the various minority peoples, and for the functioning of the autonomous national minority areas system.

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China is a united multi-ethnic nation of 56 ethnic groups.  According to the fourth national census, taken in 1990, the Han people made up 91.96% of the country's total population, and the other 55 ethnic groups, 8.04%.  As the majority of the population is of the Han ethnic group, China's other ethnic groups are customarily referred to as the national minorities.

The Han people can be found throughout the country, though mainly on the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, the Yangtze River and the Pearl River valleys and the Northeast plain.  The national minorities, though fewer in number, are also scattered over a vast areas, and can be found in approximately 64.3 percent of China, mainly distributed in the border regions from northeast China to north, northwest, and southwest China.

  Yunnan Province, home to more than 20 ethnic groups, has the greatest diversity of minority people in China.  In most of China's cities and county town, two or more ethic groups live together.  Taking shape over China's long history, this circumstance of different ethic groups "living together in one area while still living in individual compact communities in special areas: continues to provide the practical basis for political, economic and cultural intercourse between the Han and the various minority peoples, and for the functioning of the autonomous national minority areas system.

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Population:
1,330,141,295 (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 1
Age structure:
0-14 years: 17.9% (male 128,363,812/female 109,917,641)
15-64 years: 73.4% (male 501,987,034/female 474,871,442)
65 years and over: 8.6% (male 55,287,997/female 59,713,369) (2010 est.)
Median age:
total: 35.2 years
male: 34.5 years
female: 35.8 years (2010 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.494% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 153
Birth rate:
12.17 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 164
Death rate:
6.89 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 143
Net migration rate:
-0.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 102
Urbanization:
urban population: 43% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 2.7% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.14 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.17 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.93 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2010 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 16.51 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 115
male: 15.84 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 17.27 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.51 years
country comparison to the world: 92
male: 72.54 years
female: 76.77 years (2010 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.54 children born/woman (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 182
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.1% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
700,000 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
39,000 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: Japanese encephalitis and dengue fever
soil contact disease: hantaviral hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS)
animal contact disease: rabies
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)
Nationality:
noun: Chinese (singular and plural)
adjective: Chinese
Ethnic groups:
Han Chinese 91.5%, Zhuang, Manchu, Hui, Miao, Uyghur, Tujia, Yi, Mongol, Tibetan, Buyi, Dong, Yao, Korean, and other nationalities 8.5% (2000 census)

REGIONAL AUTONOMY FOR MINORITY PEOPLES

Equality, unity, mutual help and common prosperity are the basic principles of the Chinese government in handling the relations between ethnic groups.  The Constitution of the PRC specifies that all ethic groups are equal.  The state guarantees the lawful rights and interests of the minority peoples.

  Discrimination against or oppression of any ethnic group is prohibited; all acts that undermine the unity of the ethnic groups or create division among them are forbidden.  Big ethnic group chauvinism, mainly Han-chauvinism, or chauvinism in a local level, is banned.  Every ethnic group has the freedom to use its own spoken and written languages, and to retain or changes its customs.

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In accordance with these basic policies, China practices a system whereby national minorities exercise regional autonomy.  Where national minorities live in compact communities autonomous organs of self-government are established under the unified leadership of the Central Government.

  The minority people shall exercise autonomous rights, be masters in their own areas and administer the internal affairs of their ethnic group.  The National Minority Regional Autonomy Law adopted in 984 by the Second Session of the Sixth National People's Congress provides specific guidelines for guaranteeing that the constitutionally decreed national minority regional autonomy system is carried out.

  In addition to five autonomous regions (Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, founded on May 1, 1947; Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, founded on October 1, 1955; Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, founded on March 5, 1958; Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, founded on October 25, 1958; and Tibet Autonomous Region, founded on September 9, 1965), China currently has 30 autonomous prefectures and 120 autonomous counties (or in some cases "banners"), in addition to more than 1,300 ethnic townships.

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  Self-government is autonomous national minority areas is affected through the people's congress and people's government at the particular local level.  The chairperson or vice-chairperson of the standing committee of the  people's congress and the head of the government of an autonomous region, autonomous prefecture or autonomous county should be from the area's designated minority people.

Organs of self-government is regional autonomous areas enjoy extensive self-government rights beyond those held b other state organs at the same level.  These include enacting regulations on autonomy and special regulations corresponding to local political, economic and culture conditions, having independent control of the local revenue, and independently arranging and managing construction, education, science, culture, public health and other local undertakings.

  The Central Government has greatly assisted in the training of minority cadres and technicians through the establishment of national minority universities.  It has, in addition, supplied the national minority autonomous areas with large quantities of financial aid and material resources in order to promote their economic and cultural development.

 

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